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Structure Transition Mechanism of Single-Crystalline Silicon, g-C3N4, and Diamond Nanocone Arrays Synthesized by Plasma Sputtering Reaction Deposition

Xu, Zhuoqi, Guan, Leilei, Li, Hui, Sun, Jian, Ying, Zhifeng, Wu, Jiada, Xu, Ning
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2015 v.119 no.52 pp. 29062-29070
carbon, carbon nitride, crystal structure, gases, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen, silicon
Single-crystalline silicon, g-C₃N₄, and diamond nanocone arrays were synthesized on nickel-covered silicon (100) substrates by a novel method of plasma sputtering reaction deposition. The experimental results show that the morphologies, structures, and composition of the as-grown nanocones strongly depend on the ratios of the inlet mixed gases. The silicon, g-C₃N₄, and diamond nanocone arrays could be grown at the CH₄/(N₂ + H₂) ratios of about 1/20–1/10, 1/150–1/60, and 0, respectively. The analyses of the optical emission spectra from the discharged plasma indicate that the inlet methane controls the growth of the nanocones by suppressing the H⁺-sputtering effect to adjust the amounts of the silicon, carbon, and nitrogen atoms attaining the substrate, which determines the composition, structures, and crystallinity of the grown nanocones.