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An approach to clarify the effect mechanism of glyphosate on body malformations during embryonic development of zebrafish (Daino rerio)

Sulukan, Ekrem, Köktürk, Mine, Ceylan, Hamid, Beydemir, Şükrü, Işik, Mesut, Atamanalp, Muhammed, Ceyhun, Saltuk Buğrahan
Chemosphere 2017
Danio rerio, abnormal development, acidosis, apoptosis, carbon dioxide, carbonate dehydratase, dose response, edema, embryogenesis, enzyme activity, glyphosate, hatching, pericardium, survival rate, toxicity, toxicology, yolk sac
In this study, it has been investigated that the effects of glyphosate, which is an herbicide within organophosphate and unselective widely used in agriculture on enzyme activity of carbonic anhydrase, production of reactive oxygen species, cell apoptosis and body morphology during the embryonic development of zebrafish.To this end, it has been treated embryo with 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/L gyphosate at 96 h. The embryos treated with glyphosate from 4 hpf were evaluated by considering the survival rates, hatching rates, body malformations under the stereo microscope in 24, 48, 72 and 96th hours. In order to clarify the mechanism of the abnormalities ROS, enzyme activity of carbonic anhydrase and cellular death were detected end of the 96th hour.The data obtained in the present study have shown that glyphosate treatment inhibited CA activity, caused production of ROS especially branchial regions, triggered cellular apoptosis and caused several types of malformations including pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, spinal curvature and body malformation in a dose-dependent manner. As a conclusion, in light of present and previous studies, we can deduce that (1) the probable reason of ROS production was CA inhibition via decreasing of CO2 extraction and developing respiratory acidosis (however, one needs to clarify), (2) abundance of ROS triggered cellular apoptosis and (3) as a result of cellular apoptosis malformations increased. These data will enable us to further understand potential toxic mechanism of glyphosate on embryonic development stage of zebrafish and may be useful for assessment in the toxicology studies.