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Phytosanitary status of Ficus carica collection orchards in Nikita Botanical Gardens and biotechnology of fig plants regeneration

Mitrofanova, I. V., Mitrofanova, O. V., Lesnikova-Sedoshenko, N. P., Chelombit, S. V., Shishkina, E. L., Chirkov, S. N.
Acta horticulturae 2016 no.1139 pp. 303-310
Ficus carica, biotechnology, botanical gardens, buds, climate, cultivars, drug therapy, edible fruits, explants, figs, genotype, growth chambers, meristems, micropropagation, monitoring, morphogenesis, orchards, photoperiod, shrubs, tropical and subtropical horticulture, woody plants
The common fig, Ficus carica L., family Moraceae is a subtropical fruit tree or shrub grown for its edible fruits. The climate of the South Crimea gives possibility to cultivate different subtropical horticulture plants, such as F. carica. Monitoring of fig mosaic disease in the fig collection plot (4 species, 267 cultivars and hybrid forms) of Nikita Botanical Gardens has been carried out and phytosanitary status of fig collection was demonstrated. The ultimate aim of this study was to improve the investigated plants by using biotechnology methods. Surface-sterilized vegetative buds of 20 fig cultivars were introduced in conditions in vitro and cultivated on modified Woody Plant Medium (WPM), supplemented with ribavirin for chemotherapy. Explants were incubated in culture tubes with 5 mL solidified medium and kept in a growth chamber at 24±1°C under 16-h photoperiod and light intensity of 37.5 μmol m-2 s-1. In vitro morphogenesis via single microshoots formation from meristems and apical buds was initiated. It was demonstrated that regeneration rate of cultured explants depended on mother plant genotype. On the initial stages of micropropagation 10-15 adventitious microshoots were directly regenerated from single explant. Method of fig in vitro micropropagation has been established.