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The role of vitamin D in the endocrinology controlling calcium homeostasis

Fleet, James C.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2017
absorption, blood serum, bone mineralization, calcitriol receptors, calcium, endocrine system, endocrinology, homeostasis, hormonal regulation, intestines, kidneys, menopause, metabolites, tissues, vitamin D
Vitamin D and its' metabolites are a crucial part of the endocrine system that controls whole body calcium homeostasis. The goal of this hormonal control is to regulate serum calcium levels so that they are maintained within a very narrow range. To achieve this goal, regulatory events occur in coordination at multiple tissues, e.g. the intestine, kidney, bone, and parathyroid gland. Production of the vitamin D endocrine hormone, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) is regulated by habitual dietary calcium intake and physiologic states like growth, aging, and the menopause. The molecular actions of 1,25(OH)2 D on calcium regulating target tissues are mediated predominantly by transcription controlled by the vitamin D receptor. A primary role for 1,25(OH)2 D during growth is to increase intestinal calcium absorption so that sufficient calcium is available for bone mineralization. However, vitamin D also has specific actions on kidney and bone.