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Anti-inflammatory activity of Crateva adansonii DC on keratinocytes infected by Staphylococcus aureus: From traditional practice to scientific approach using HPTLC-densitometry

Ahama-Esseh, Kplolali, Bodet, Charles, Quashie-Mensah-Attoh, Akossiwa, Garcia, Magali, Théry-Koné, Isabelle, Dorat, Joelle, De Souza, Comlan, Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile, Boudesocque-Delaye, Leslie
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2017 v.204 pp. 26-35
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Crateva adansonii, Staphylococcus aureus, abscess, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-inflammatory agents, antioxidant activity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flavonoids, humans, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, keratinocytes, leaves, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, screening, selection criteria, traditional medicine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Leaves of Crateva adansonii DC (Capparidaceae), a small bush found in Togo, are widely used in traditional medicine to cure infectious abscesses. Traditional healers of Lomé harvest only budding leaves early in the morning, in specific area in order to prepare their drugs.The main goal was to validate the ancestral picking practices, and to assess the activity of C. adansonii medicine towards infectious abscesses.A phytochemical screening of various C. adansonii leaf samples was performed using an original HPTLC-densitometry protocol and major flavonoids were identified and quantified. C. adansonii samples were collected in different neighborhoods of Lomé, at different harvesting-times and at different ages. Radical scavenging capacity, using DPPH assay, was used to quickly screen all extracts. Extracts were tested for anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity and anti-inflammatory effect on human primary keratinocytes infected by S. aureus. IL6, IL8 and TNFα expression and production were assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA assays.Using antioxidant activity as selection criteria, optimal extracts were obtained with budding leaves, collected at 5:00am in Djidjolé neighborhood. This extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory effect on S. aureus-infected keratinocytes by reducing IL6, IL8 and TNFα expression and production. None of the extracts inhibited the growth of S. aureus.Those results validate the traditional practices and the potential of C. adansonii as anti-inflammatory drug. Our findings suggest that traditional healers should add to C. adansonii leaves an antibacterial plant of Togo Pharmacopeia, in order to improve abscess healing.