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Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, wound-healing effectiveness and chemical characterization of the latex of Jatropha neopauciflora Pax

Hernandez-Hernandez, A.B., Alarcon-Aguilar, F.J., Almanza-Perez, J.C., Nieto-Yañez, O., Olivares-Sanchez, J.M., Duran-Diaz, A., Rodriguez-Monroy, M.A., Canales-Martinez, M.M.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2017 v.204 pp. 1-7
Gram-positive bacteria, Jatropha, anti-inflammatory activity, antibacterial properties, antifungal properties, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, cytotoxicity, edema, flavonoids, fructose, gel chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, indigenous species, inflammation, latex, mice, models, phenols, proteins, rats, secondary metabolites, teeth, tensiometers, tissue repair, traditional medicine, yeasts, Mexico
Jatropha neopauciflora Pax is an endemic species to Mexico, and its latex is used in traditional medicine to treat mouth infections when there are loose teeth and to heal wounds. In this research, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity, wound healing efficacy and chemical characterization of J. neopauciflora latex in a murine model.The antibacterial activity was determined using Gram positive and negative strains, the antifungal activity was determined using yeast and filamentous fungi, and the wound healing efficacy of the latex was determined using the tensiometric method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the plantar oedema model in rats, administering the latex orally and topically. Cytotoxic activity was determined in vitro in two different cell lines. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, total flavonoids, reducing carbohydrates and latex proteins were quantified. The latex analysis was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Finally, molecular exclusion chromatography was performed.The latex demonstrated antibacterial activity. The most sensitive strains were Gram positive bacteria, particularly S. aureus (MIC=2mg/mL), and the latex had bacteriostatic activity. The latex did not show antifungal activity. The latex demonstrated a wound-healing efficacy, even the positive control (Recoveron). The orally administered latex demonstrated the best anti-inflammatory activity and was not toxic to either of the 2 cell lines. The latex had a high antioxidant capacity (SA50=5.4µg/mL), directly related to the total phenolic (6.9mg GAE/mL) and flavonoid (12.53µg QE/mL) concentration. The carbohydrate concentration was 18.52µg/mL, and fructose was the most abundantly expressed carbohydrate in the latex (14.63µg/mL, 79.03%). Additionally, the latex contained proteins (7.62µg/mL) in its chemical constitution. As secondary metabolites, the HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenols and flavonoids.The J. neopauciflora latex promotes the wound healing process by avoiding microorganism infections, inhibiting inflammation and acting as an antioxidant.