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Efficient Reduction of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Fluoroquinolones by Fungal-Mediated N-Oxidation
- Rusch, Marina, Spielmeyer, Astrid, Meißner, Jessica, Kietzmann, Manfred, Zorn, Holger, Hamscher, Gerd
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.15 pp. 3118-3126
- Xylaria, antibacterial properties, antibiotics, aquatic organisms, biotransformation, cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, environmental health, fertilizers, food chain, fungi, livestock, marbofloxacin, mass spectrometry, metabolites, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- Extensive usage of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in livestock results in their occurrence in manure and subsequently in the environment. Fluoroquinolone residues may promote bacterial resistance and are toxic to plants and aquatic organisms. Moreover, fluoroquinolones may enter the food chain through plant uptake, if manure is applied as fertilizer. Thus, the presence of fluoroquinolones in the environment may pose a threat to human and ecological health. In this study, the biotransformation of enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and difloxacin by the fungus X. longipes (Xylaria) was investigated. The main metabolites were unequivocally identified as the respective N-oxides by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fungal-mediated N-oxidation of fluoroquinolones led to a 77–90% reduction of the initial antibacterial activity. In contrast to their respective parent compounds, N-oxides showed low cytotoxic potential and had a reduced impact on cell proliferation. Thus, biotransformation by X. longipes may represent an effective method for inactivating fluoroquinolones.