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Resolution of an immunodiagnostic dilemma: Heavy chain chimeric antibodies for species in which plasmocytomas are unknown
- Butler, J. E., Wertz, N., Sun, X.-Z., Lunney, J. K., Muyldermans, S.
- Molecular immunology 2013 v.53 no.1-2 pp. 140
- antibodies, diagnostic specificity, genes, hybridomas, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin G, lysozyme, reference standards, swine, transfection
- The immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of many vertebrates have been characterized but IgG subclasses, IgD and IgE proteins are only available for three species in which plasmacytomas occur. This creates a major problem in the production and specificity verification of diagnostic anti-Ig reagents for the vast majority of mammals. We describe a novel solution using the swine system with its eleven different variants of IgG. It involves the in vitro synthesis of chimeric porcine-camelid heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) that do not require light chains and therefore only a single transfection vector. The expressed chimeric HCAbs are comprised of the camelid VHH domain encoding specificity for lysozyme and the hinge, CH2 and CH3 domains of the various porcine IgGs. These HCAb retain their antigenic integrity and their ability to recognize lysozyme. The engineered specificity assures that these HCAb can be immobilized in native configuration when used for testing the specificity of anti-swine IgG antibodies. Comparative data to illustrate the importance of this point are provided. These are now available for use in hybridoma selection and as reference standards for evaluating the specificity of currently available anti-swine IgG antibodies.