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Caffeoyl and coumaroyl derivatives from Acacia cochliacantha exhibit ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus

Castillo-Mitre, G.F., Olmedo-Juárez, A., Rojo-Rubio, R., González-Cortázar, M., Mendoza-de Gives, P., Hernández-Beteta, E.E., Reyes-Guerrero, D.E., López-Arellano, M.E., Vázquez-Armijo, J.F., Ramírez-Vargas, G., Zamilpa, A.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2017 v.204 pp. 125-131
Haemonchus contortus, Vachellia campeachiana, anthelmintics, caffeic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide, drugs, eggs, ethyl acetate, ferulic acid, gastrointestinal nematodes, glycosylation, hatching, high performance liquid chromatography, ivermectin, kidneys, leaves, methanol, methylene chloride, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, p-coumaric acid, pain, polar compounds, quercetin, small ruminants, traditional medicine, trees, Mexico
Acacia cochliacantha is a small tree whose foliage is traditionally used in Mexico for treatment of kidney pain, gastrointestinal illnesses and to kill intestinal parasites. In recent decades, the study of vegetal extracts has offered other possible alternatives for the control of Haemonchus contortus. Considering that this nematode affects dramatically the health and productivity of small ruminants, the aim of this study was to identify the anthelmintic compounds from A. cochliacantha hydro-alcoholic extract (HA-E) through an ovicidal test.In vitro egg hatch assay was conducted to determinate the anthelmintic effects of a HA-E (60g). Liquid-liquid ethyl acetate/water extraction gave two fractions (EtOAc-F, 1.92g; Aq-F; 58.1g). The less polar compounds from ethyl acetate fraction were extracted by addition of dichloromethane offering a precipitate phase (Mt-F, 1.25g) and a soluble mixture (DCMt-F 1.15g). All fractions were evaluated for ovicidal activity obtaining the egg hatching inhibition (EHI, 0.07–25mg/mL). Ivermectin (0.5mg/mL) was used as a reference drug (positive control), and distilled water, 2.5% DMSO and 2% methanol were used as negative controls. The isolated compounds from the most active fractions were subjected to spectroscopic (¹H NMR) Spectrometric (MS) and UV HPLC analysis in order to identify the bioactive compounds.The less polar treatments (AcOEt-F, DCMt-F, DCMt-P) showed the highest ovicidal activities (98–100% EHI; at 0.62–1.56mg/mL) and the major compounds found in these fractions were identified as caffeoyl and coumaroyl derivatives, including caffeic acid (1), p-coumaric acid (2), ferulic acid (3), methyl caffeate (4), methyl-p-coumarate (5), methyl ferulate (6) and quercetin. In case of the less active fractions (Aq-F, Mt-F) were constituted principally by glycosylated flavonoids.These results show that caffeoyl and coumaroyl derivatives from Acacia cochliacantha leaves had promising anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. This leguminous may offer an alternative source for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants.