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How to improve the gluten-free diet: The state of the art from a food science perspective

Gobbetti, Marco, Pontonio, Erica, Filannino, Pasquale, Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe, De Angelis, Maria, Di Cagno, Raffaella
Food research international 2018 v.110 pp. 22-32
biotechnology, celiac disease, compliance, fermentation, food intolerance, gluten, gluten-free diet, intestinal microorganisms, palatability, people, rheology, shelf life, sourdough, therapeutics
The celiac disease is the most common food intolerance and its prevalence is increasing. Consequently, use of gluten-free diet has expanded, notwithstanding consumption as therapy for other gluten-related disorders or by wellbeing people without any medical prescription. Even the therapeutic efficiency has undoubtedly proven, several drawbacks mainly regarding the compliance, nutritional deficits and related diseases, and the alteration of the intestinal microbiota have described in the literature. Food science has been considered as one of the primary area of intervention to limit or eliminate such drawbacks. Efforts have approached shelf life, rheology and palatability aspects but more recently have mainly focused to improve the nutritional features of the gluten-free diet, and to propose dietary alternatives. The sourdough fermentation has shown the most promising results, also including a biotechnology strategy that has allowed the complete degradation of gluten prior to consumption.