Main content area

Allelopathic interactions between the macroalga Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) and the harmful blooms-forming dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi

Ma, Zengling, Wu, Mingjiang, Lin, Lidong, Thring, Ronald W., Yu, Hengguo, Zhang, Xu, Zhao, Min
Harmful algae 2017 v.65 pp. 19-26
Karenia, adults, algal blooms, allelopathy, chlorophyll, coastal water, electron transfer, leaves, macroalgae, mariculture, photochemistry, photosynthesis, sporophytes, East China Sea
The effects of algal blooms on seaweeds have been rarely studied, although harmful algal blooms (HABs) are now normally regarded as worldwide incidents. In the present study, the effects of dense Karenia mikimotoi cells on the growth and photosynthesis of Hizikia fusiformis, a common and commercially cultivated macroalga in coastal waters of the East China Sea (ECS), were studied to understand the possible consequences when the mariculture encountered a dense harmful algal bloom. Furthermore, the counteraction of the latter on the growth and photosynthetic activities of K. mikimotoi was determined to evaluate the contribution of H. fusiformis commercial cultivation to environmental improvements. The results showed that the chlorophyll a (Chl a) contents, maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and relative electron transfer rate (rETR) of gas vesicles (specialized leaves), adult and young receptacles of H. fusiformis were all significantly (P<0.05) inhibited compared with the mono-cultured ones. When compared with mono-cultured H. fusiformis (without K. mikimotoi), the Chl a contents in gas vesicles, adult and young receptacles decreased by 20.6%, 17.6% and 33.2% within 2 weeks. Correspondingly, the Fv/Fm decreased by 7.9%, 37.4% and 43.7%; the apparent photosynthetic efficiency (α) decreased by 9.4%, 47.1% and 48.3%; and rETR decreased by 19.5%, 52.6% and 68.2%, respectively. The Chl a concentration of the mono-cultured K. mikimotoi (without H. fusiformis) increased to 2247.97μgl−1 from 958.11μgl−1 within 14 d. Those of the co-cultivated ones (with H. fusiformis), however, increased to 1591.31μgl−1 on the 8th day and then decreased rapidly to 254.99 (±37.73) μgl−1 after the next 6 days. Furthermore, compared with the mono-cultured K. mikimotoi cells, the Fv/Fm, α and rETRmax of co-cultivated ones decreased by 9.4%, 36.3% and 30.6%, respectively. The results indicated that the mature sporophytes of H. fusiformis were resistant to dense K. mikimotoi blooms and this resistance was organ-dependent as: gas vesicle>adult receptacles>young receptacles. On the other hand, commercial mariculture of H. fusiformis demonstrated the potential of preventing the occurrence of algal blooms.