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In Vitro Reconstitution of the Complete Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome and Synergistic Activity on Crystalline Cellulose

Krauss, Jan, Zverlov, Vladimir V., Schwarz, Wolfgang H.
Applied and environmental microbiology 2012 v.78 no.12 pp. 4301-4307
Clostridium thermocellum, carbohydrate binding, cellulose, cellulosome, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, mutants, nanoparticles, proteins, synergism
Artificial cellulase complexes active on crystalline cellulose were reconstituted in vitro from a native mix of cellulosomal enzymes and CipA scaffoldin. Enzymes containing dockerin modules for binding to the corresponding cohesin modules were prepared from culture supernatants of a C. thermocellum cipA mutant. They were reassociated to cellulosomes via dockerin-cohesin interaction. Recombinantly produced mini-CipA proteins with one to three cohesins either with or without the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and the complete CipA protein were used as the cellulosomal backbone. The binding between cohesins and dockerins occurred spontaneously. The hydrolytic activity against soluble and crystalline cellulosic compounds showed that the composition of the complex does not seem to be dependent on which CipA-derived cohesin was used for reconstitution. Binding did not seem to have an obvious local preference (equal binding to Coh1 and Coh6). The synergism on crystalline cellulose increased with an increasing number of cohesins in the scaffoldin. The in vitro-formed complex showed a 12-fold synergism on the crystalline substrate (compared to the uncomplexed components). The activity of reconstituted cellulosomes with full-size CipA reached 80% of that of native cellulosomes. Complexation on the surface of nanoparticles retained the activity of protein complexes and enhanced their stability. Partial supplementation of the native cellulosome components with three selected recombinant cellulases enhanced the activity on crystalline cellulose and reached that of the native cellulosome. This opens possibilities for in vitro complex reconstitution, which is an important step toward the creation of highly efficient engineered cellulases.