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Acid rain in Jiangsu province, eastern China: Tempo-spatial variations features and analysis

Zhang, Guozheng, Liu, Duanyang, He, Xiaohong, Yu, Deyue, Pu, Meijuan
Atmospheric Pollution Research 2017
acid deposition, air, air pollution, ammonium compounds, calcium, cluster analysis, databases, dust, emissions, industrialization, mass transfer, models, pH, particulates, pollutants, rivers, soil, sulfur dioxide, urbanization, China
Acid rain is a serious environmental problem in China, caused by the urbanization and industrialization. We used recent acid rain and urban pollutant emissions data from the eastern coastal Jiangsu province to analyze the spatial distribution of acid rain. Further, we analyzed the regional air pollution data of the commission discharge atmospheric research database (EDGAR) regional air pollution data and developed a back-trajectory model for the cluster analysis of the air mass transfer characteristics of acid rain. The results show that from 2007 to 2013 the precipitation pH were high in northern and low in southern parts of Jiangsu Province. The average precipitation pH in the northwest and northeast parts were higher than 5.6; the frequency of acid rain in the area south of the Huaihe River accounted for more than 50% of total rainfall samples. Precipitation conductive in the northwest and southwest was greater than 60 μs/cm. The SO2, NOX, and PM10 were lower in the northern part and higher in the southern part. The northern part has higher pH and lower emission of precursors. One likely source for high ammonium and calcium concentration is local soil. From the northwest air mass, the acid rain appeared to have the highest average pH and the air mass from the southwest had the highest percentage of acid rain. The local emission (SO2, NOX, and Dust) reduction from 2005 led the haze and the acid rain problems mitigated to a good trend. The haze day increase and acid rain decrease due to the NH4+, and Ca2+ increase, and the long-distance transmission and the alkaline pollutant played an important role in Jiangsu' acid rain problem and haze since 2009.