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Volatile induction of infected and neighbouring uninfected plants potentially influence attraction/repellence of a cereal herbivore
- Piesik, D., Panka, D., Jeske, M., Wenda-Piesik, A., Delaney, K. J., Weaver, D. K.
- Journal of applied entomology 2013 v.137 no.4 pp. 296
- Fusarium, Osmia, acetates, barley, corn, grain crops, herbivores, insect attractants, insect repellents, leaves, linalool, oxides, plant pathogens, volatile organic compounds, wheat
- Plant infection by pathogens can induce volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We infected ‘McNeal’ wheat and ‘Harrington’ barley with a Fusarium spp. blend (graminearum, avenaceum, and culmorum). Both cereals had highest VOC induction 14 d after pathogen introduction, significantly slightly lower induction occurred at 7 d, but no induction at 1d. The induced VOC bouquet for both cereals included green leaf volatiles (GLVs; (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 1-hexenyl acetate), terpenes ((Z)-ocimene, '-linalool, linalool oxide, '-caryophyllene), and benzyl acetate. Uninfected individuals of both cereals had significant VOC induction from a neighboring infected conspecific plant where degree of induction was negatively related to infected plant distance. Y-tube tests showed that female and male O. cyanella Voet. were significantly attracted to (Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate at 300 and 1500 ng h-1, and repelled from both GLVs, (Z)-'-ocimene, and linalool at 7500 ng h-1. Thus, pathogen infection of both cereals induced VOCs as induced concentrations increased over time and induced neighboring uninfected plant VOCs. This may influence herbivores, as O. cyanella had dose-dependent attraction and/or avoidance of some VOCs, different than previously tested O. melanopus that only had attraction responses to three VOCs common to maize, barley, and wheat cereals.