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Application of Response Surface Modeling to Optimize Critical Structural Components of Walnut–Beverage Emulsion with Respect to Analysis of the Physicochemical Aspects

Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi, Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad, Hamedi, Manouchehr, Khodaiyan, Faramarz
Food and bioprocess technology 2013 v.6 no.2 pp. 456-469
emulsions, gum arabic, mathematical models, opacity, pH, response surface methodology, turbidity, walnut oil, xanthan gum
The application of walnut oil (WO) as a functional component in the production of beverage emulsion was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three critical structuring components (considered as independent variables), namely gum arabic (GA; 6–10% (w/w)), xanthan gum (XG; 0.10–0.30% (w/w)), and WO (3.5–6.5% (w/w)) on the turbidity loss rate, stability, size index, opacity, and pH (considered as dependent variables) of these emulsions, were studied. For each response parameter, a second-order polynomial model versus independent variables was determined and statistically obtained with high coefficient of determination values (R ² > 0.96). Most significant (p < 0.0001) effect was attributed to the linear function of WO in all reduced models. Numerical optimization defined the optimum formulation where the highest stability and opacity and the lowest turbidity loss rate, size index, and pH (GA content 10.0% (w/w), XG content 0.13% (w/w), and WO concentration 5.09% (w/w)) were expected. Under the optimum condition, the corresponding predicted response values for turbidity loss rate, stability, size index, opacity, and pH were predicted to be 0.366 Å/day, 99.40%, 0.599, 1.034, and 3.69, respectively. RSM analysis indicated good correlation between experimental and predicted values.