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A microsatellite-based genome-wide analysis of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars from major cotton-growing countries

Fang, David D., Hinze, Lori L., Percy, Richard G., Li, Ping, Deng, Dewayne, Thyssen, Gregory
Euphytica 2013 v.191 no.3 pp. 391
Gossypium hirsutum, alleles, breeding, chemical structure, chromosome mapping, cultivars, diploidy, gene frequency, genetic distance, genetic markers, genetic variation, genomics, linkage disequilibrium, loci, microsatellite repeats, pedigree, phylogeny, United States
To better understand the genetic diversity of the cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)and its structure at the molecular level, 193 Upland cotton cultivars collected from 26 countries were genotyped using 448 microsatellite markers. These markers were selected based on their mapping positions in the high density G. hirsutum TM-1 9 G. barbadense 3-79 map, and they covered the whole genome. In addition, the physical locations of these markers were also partially identified based on the reference sequence of the diploid G. raimondii (D5) genome. The marker orders in the genetic map were largely in agreement with their orders in the physical map. These markers revealed 1,590 alleles belonging to 732 loci. Analysis of unique marker allele numbers indicated that the modern US Upland cotton had been losing its genetic diversity during the past century. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker pairs was clearly un-even among chromosomes, and among regions within a chromosome. The average size of a LD block was 6.75 cM at r2 = 0.10. A neighborjoining phylogenic tree of these cultivars was generated using marker allele frequencies based on Nei’s genetic distance. The cultivars were grouped into 15 groups according to the phylogenic tree. Grouping results were largely congruent with the breeding history and pedigrees of the cultivars with a few exceptions.