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Seed Protein Percentage and Mineral Concentration Variability and Their Correlation with Other Seed Quality Traits in the U.S. Peanut Mini-Core Collection

Ming Li Wang, Michael A. Grusak, Charles Y. Chen, Brandon Tonnis, Noelle A. Barkley, Stacie Evans, David Pinnow, Jerry Davis, Robert D. Phillips, C. Corley Holbrook, Gary A. Pederson
Peanut Science 2016 v.43 no.2 pp. 119-125
boron, breeding, calcium, copper, correlation, foods, genetic resources, iron, magnesium, manganese, mineral content, molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen, nutrition, oils, oleic acid, peanuts, phosphorus, potassium, product development, protein content, proteins, seed quality, seeds, sodium, spectroscopy, sulfur, zinc, United States
Protein percentage and mineral concentrations are important parameters for determining the seed nutrition quality. Although the U.S. peanut mini-core collection is the important genetic resources for peanut breeding programs, the variability in protein percentage and mineral concentrations for this mini-core has not been well evaluated. The lack of information may hinder its optimum utilization. The seeds from this mini-core were collected from two field seasons. Their protein percentage and mineral concentrations of 95 accessions were determined by nitrogen analysis and inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry, respectively. Significant variability in the seed protein percentage among accessions was revealed, ranging from 20.6 to 30.4%, with an average of 26.2%. Significantly higher variability in plant micronutrient mineral concentrations (more than two-fold for B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, and Zn) than in macronutrient mineral concentrations (less than two-fold for K, Mg, P, and S) was also identified among accessions. Calcium however was an exception, demonstrating 3.7-fold variability among the accessions evaluated. Three accessions (PI 497517, PI 493547, and PI 429429) were identified as lines containing high seed levels of both Fe and Zn. Correlation coefficients were also determined among 28 investigated seed chemical composition traits, using data from a previous study with the same samples. Protein percentage was significantly negatively correlated with seed weight, oil, and oleate percentage. Several mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) were also significantly negatively correlated with oleate percentage. The results from this study will be useful for peanut nutrition breeding and food product development.