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Biodegradation of micropollutant naproxen with a selected fungal strain and identification of metabolites C A journal of biosciences
- Aracagök, Y. Doruk, Göker, Hakan, Cihangir, Nilüfer
- Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 2017 v.72 no.5-6 pp. 173-179
- Aspergillus niger, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Yarrowia lipolytica, acetic acid, biodegradation, byproducts, cytochrome P-450, diseases and disorders (animals and humans), drinking water, fungi, hydroxylation, metabolites, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, pollutants, sodium
- Pharmaceuticals are widely used for treating human and animal diseases. Naproxen [(S) 6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthalene acetic acid] and its sodium salt are members of the α-arylpropionic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Due to excessive usage of naproxen, this drug has been determined even in drinking water. In this study, four fungal strains Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Funalia trogii, Aspergillus niger, and Yarrowia lipolytica were investigated in terms of naproxen removal abilities. According to LC/MS data, A. niger was found the most efficient strain with 98% removal rate. Two main by-products of fungal transformation, O-desmethylnaproxen and 7-hydroxynaproxen, were identified by using LC/MS, ¹HNMR, and ¹³CNMR. Our results showed that O-demethylation and hydroxylation of naproxen is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzyme system.