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Genome and transcriptome-wide analyses of cellulose synthase gene superfamily in soybean

Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad, Rehman, Hafiz Mamoon, Baloch, Faheem Shehzad, Ijaz, Babar, Ali, Muhammad Amjad, Khan, Iqrar Ahmad, Lee, Jeong Dong, Chung, Gyuhwa, Yang, Seung Hwan
Journal of plant physiology 2017 v.215 pp. 163-175
Arabidopsis, biosynthesis, cellulose, cellulose synthase, chromosomes, data collection, developmental stages, genes, hemicellulose, microsatellite repeats, models, phylogeny, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, seed development, sequence analysis, soybeans
The plant cellulose synthase gene superfamily belongs to the category of type-2 glycosyltransferases, and is involved in cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis. These enzymes are vital for maintaining cell-wall structural integrity throughout plant life. Here, we identified 78 putative cellulose synthases (CS) in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analysis against 40 reference Arabidopsis CS genes clustered soybean CSs into seven major groups (CESA, CSL A, B, C, D, E and G), located on 19 chromosomes (except chromosome 18). Soybean CS expansion occurred in 66 duplication events. Additionally, we identified 95 simple sequence repeat makers related to 44 CSs. We next performed digital expression analysis using publically available datasets to understand potential CS functions in soybean. We found that CSs were highly expressed during soybean seed development, a pattern confirmed with an Affymatrix soybean IVT array and validated with RNA-seq profiles. Within CS groups, CESAs had higher relative expression than CSLs. Soybean CS models were designed based on maximum average RPKM values. Gene co-expression networks were developed to explore which CSs could work together in soybean. Finally, RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of 15 selected CSs during all four seed developmental stages.