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Absence of association between polymorphisms in the K13 gene and the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites at day 3 after treatment with artemisinin derivatives in Senegal

Madamet, Marylin, Kounta, Mame Bou, Wade, Khalifa Ababacar, Lo, Gora, Diawara, Silman, Fall, Mansour, Bercion, Raymond, Nakoulima, Aminata, Fall, Khadidiatou Ba, Benoit, Nicolas, Gueye, Mamadou Wague, Fall, Bécaye, Diatta, Bakary, Pradines, Bruno
International journal of antimicrobial agents 2017 v.49 no.6 pp. 754-756
Plasmodium falciparum, artemisinin, genes, genetic markers, genetic polymorphism, intravenous injection, malaria, parasites, patients, quinine, therapeutics, Senegal, South East Asia
In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. In addition, intravenous (i.v.) injection of artesunate and artemether has gradually replaced quinine for the treatment of severe malaria. Mutations in the propeller domain of the Kelch 13 gene (K13-propeller, PF3D71343700), such as Y493H, R539T, I543T and C580Y, were recently associated with in vivo and in vitro resistance to artemisinin in Southeast Asia. However, these mutations were not identified in Africa. In total, 181 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from 161 patients from Dakar, Senegal, were collected between August 2015 and January 2016. The K13-propeller gene of the isolates was sequenced. A search for non-synonymous mutations in the propeller region of K13 was performed in the 181 isolates collected from Dakar from 2015 to 2016. Three synonymous mutations were detected (D464D, C469C and R471R). Of 119 patients treated with i.v. artesunate or intramuscular artemether followed by artemether/lumefantrine, 9 patients were still parasitaemic on Day 3. Parasites from these nine patients were wild-type for K13-propeller. None of the polymorphisms known to be involved in artemisinin resistance in Asia were detected. These results suggest that K13 is not the best predictive marker for artemisinin resistance in Africa. More isolates from clinical failure cases or patients with delayed parasite clearance after treatment with artemisinin derivatives are necessary to identify new molecular markers.