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Analysis of the histone cluster in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): evidence for a divergent evolution of two canonical histone clusters

Merlo, Manuel Alejandro, Iziga, Roger, Portela-Bens, Silvia, Cross, Ismael, Kosyakova, Nadezda, Liehr, Thomas, Manchado, Manuel, Rebordinos, Laureana
Genome 2016 v.60 no.5 pp. 441-453
Danio rerio, Solea senegalensis, alanine, aquaculture, bacterial artificial chromosomes, clones, divergent evolution, genes, histones, humans, karyotyping, phylogeny, serine
The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is commercially very important and a priority species for aquaculture product diversification. The main histone cluster was identified within two BAC clones. However, two replacement histones (H1.0 and H3.3) were found in another BAC clone. Different types of canonical histones H2A and H2B were found within the same species for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the different types of H1, H2A, and H2B histones were all more similar to each other than to canonical histones from other species. The canonical histone H3 of S. senegalensis differs from subtypes H3.1 and H3.2 in humans at the site of residue 96, where a serine is found instead of an alanine. This same polymorphism has been found only in Danio rerio. The karyotype of S. senegalensis comprises 21 pairs of chromosomes, distributed in 3 metacentric pairs, 2 submetacentric pairs, 4 subtelocentric pairs, and 12 acrocentric pairs. The two BAC clones that contain the clusters of canonical histones were both mapped on the largest metacentric pair, and mFISH analysis confirmed the co-location with the dmrt1 gene in that pair. Three chromosome markers have been identified which, in addition to those previously described, account for 18 chromosome pairs in S. senegalensis.