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Protein Profile and Molecular Markers Related to the Baking Quality of Brazilian Wheat Cultivars

Dias, Renata de O., de Souza, Moacil A., Pirozi, Mônica R., Oliveira, Ludmilla de C., Pimentel, Adérico J. B.
Cereal chemistry 2017 v.94 no.3 pp. 568-575
baking, baking quality, breeding programs, chromosomes, cultivars, genetic markers, genotype, high performance liquid chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein content, proteins, rye, sodium dodecyl sulfate, wheat
To carry out wheat breeding programs, proteins were identified and quantified (through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [SDS-PAGE] and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [SE-HPLC]) and six allele-specific markers were tested on 45 Brazilian cultivars. A microscale baking test was applied to associate analytical and genetic responses with baking quality. The results suggested a prevalence of the subunits 2* and 1 in chromosome 1A; 7+8, 7+9, and 17+18 in 1B; and 5+10 in 1D; absence of 1BL/1RS translocation in 62.2% of the genotypes; and presence of Pinb-D1b and Glu-A3d in 8.9% of the genotypes. The average SE-HPLC values were 37.50 and 45.42% for polymeric protein in total protein (PPP) and unextractable polymeric protein (UPP), respectively, and 1.29 for the gliadin-to-glutenin (GLI/GLU) ratio, with significant variation among the genotypes (P ≤ 0.05). The baking test also showed a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the cultivars under the same conditions. The cultivars without the 1BL/1RS translocation with rye also showed better results for UPP, PPP, and GLI/GLU in relation to those possessing translocation. These results corroborate for selection of HMW subunits 5+10, cultivars without translocation with rye, with high UPP values and a balanced GLI/GLU ratio (around 1.0) with the objective of obtaining greater wheat baking quality.