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Cyclooxygenase inhibitory compounds from Gymnosporia heterophylla aerial parts

Ochieng, Charles O., Opiyo, Sylvia A., Mureka, Edward W., Ishola, Ismail O.
Fitoterapia 2017 v.119 pp. 168-174
Gymnosporia, aerial parts, alkaloids, alternative medicine, anti-inflammatory activity, chromatography, inhibitory concentration 50, medicinal plants, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, prostaglandin synthase, sesquiterpenoids, solvents, triterpenoids
Gymnosporia heterophylla (Celastraceae) is an African medicinal plants used to treat painful and inflammatory diseases with partial scientific validation. Solvent extractions followed by repeated chromatographic purification of the G. heterophylla aerial parts led to the isolation of one new β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (1), and two triterpenes (2–3). In addition, eight known compounds including one β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (4), and six triterpenes (5–10) were isolated. All structures were determined through extensive analysis of the NMR an MS data as well as by comparison with literature data. These compounds were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activities against COX-1 and -2 inhibitory potentials. Most of the compound isolated showed non selective COX inhibitions except for 3-Acetoxy-1β-hydroxyLupe-20(29)-ene (5), Lup-20(29)-ene-1β,3β-diol (6) which showed COX-2 selective inhibition at 0.54 (1.85), and 0.45 (2.22) IC50, in mM (Selective Index), respectively. The results confirmed the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds in G. heterophylla which are important indicators for development of complementary medicine for inflammatory reactions; however, few could be useful as selective COX-2 inhibitor.