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A Comprehensive Analysis of Plausible Genotoxic Covariates Among Workers of a Polyvinyl Chloride Plant Exposed to Vinyl Chloride Monomer

Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick, Balachandar, Vellingiri, Arun, Meyyazhagan, Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan Mustaq, Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh, Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanium, Sankar, Kathannan, Sasikala, Keshavarao
Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology 2013 v.64 no.4 pp. 652-658
at-risk population, carcinogenicity, cytogenetics, exposure duration, factories, gene frequency, genotoxicity, labor, long term effects, lymphocytes, occupational exposure, occupations, poly(vinyl chloride), questionnaires, risk, tail, vinyl chloride
The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations—including chromatid type aberrations (CTAs), chromosomal type aberrations, micronucleus (MN) comet assay, and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism—in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 52 workers and an equal number of controls were recruited into the study to explore the potential cytogenetic risk of occupational exposure to VCM. Questionnaires were administered to obtain details of habitual cigarette-smoking, alcohol-consumption pattern, and occupation, etc. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on age (group I <40 years; group II ≥40 years), and exposed subjects were further classified based on exposure duration (>8 and ≥8 years). CTA, MN, and comet assay frequency were significantly greater in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factory workers (p < 0.05) with long-duration work. CTA, MN, and comet assay values were found to be increased with age in exposed subjects as well as in controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically greater degree. An extensively greater MN frequency was observed in smokers exposed to VCM than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean tail length of exposed subjects was greater compared with controls. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in PVC factory workers showed less significant difference in allele frequency compared with controls. In conclusion, this results of work provides evidence for an apparent genotoxic effect associated with VCM exposure. Our results reinforce the greater sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. Statistics indicate that workers exposed to VCM are at carcinogenic risk and should be monitored for long-term adverse effects from their exposure.