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Quantitative analysis of growth and volatile fatty acid production by the anaerobic ruminal bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii T81

Weimer, P. J., Moen, G. N.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2013 v.97 no.9 pp. 4075
Megasphaera elsdenii, acetates, anaerobic digestion, bacteria, butyrates, carbohydrate metabolism, culture media, dose response, fermentation, glucose, glycogen, hexanoic acid, lactates, lipid metabolism, microbial growth, pH, propionates, quantitative analysis, rumen bacteria, valeric acid, volatile fatty acids
Megasphaera elsdenii T81 grew on either DL-lactate or D-glucose at similar rates (0.85 h(-1)) but displayed major differences in the fermentation of these substrates. Lactate was fermented at up to 210-mM concentration to yield acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. The bacterium was able to grow at much higher concentrations of D-glucose (500 mM), but never removed more than 80 mM of glucose from the medium, and nearly 60 % the glucose removed was sequestered as intracellular glycogen, with low yields of even-carbon acids (acetate, butyrate, caproate). In the presence of both substrates, glucose was not used until lactate was nearly exhausted, even by cells pregrown on glucose. Glucose-grown cultures maintained only low extracellular concentrations of acetate, and addition of exogenous acetate increased yields of butyrate, but not caproate. By contrast, exogenous acetate had little effect on lactate fermentation. At pH 6.6, growth rate was halved by exogenous addition of 60 mM propionate, 69 mM butyrate, 44 mM valerate, or 33 mM caproate; at pH 5.9, these values were reduced to 49, 49, 18, and 22 mM, respectively. The results are consistent with this species' role as an effective ruminal lactate consumer and suggest that this organism may be useful for industrial production of volatile fatty acids from lactate if product tolerance could be improved. The poor fermentation of glucose and sensitivity to caproate suggests that this strain is not practical for industrial caproate production.