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Grape and wine quality of Vitis vinifera 'Nero di Troia' in response to moderate deficit irrigation

Tarricone, L., Alba, V., Di Gennaro, D., Amendolagine, A. M., Gentilesco, G., Masi, G.
Acta horticulturae 2017 no.1150 pp. 485-492
Vitis vinifera, anthocyanins, canopy, cultivars, deficit irrigation, grapes, harvesting, irrigation rates, leaves, microclimate, pH, photosynthesis, polyphenols, ripening, small fruits, sugars, temperature, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vines, vineyards, water stress, water supply, wine quality, winemaking, wines, Italy
Moderate vine water stress imposed during grape development reduces shoot growth, yield, berry size and promote sugar accumulation and polyphenols concentrations in grapevine berries with canopy microclimate modification. The experiment was conducted during 2013 in a commercial vineyard of 'Nero di Troia' cultivar located in Apulia region (southern Italy), trained to vertical shoot positioned (VSP) and cane pruned. Full irrigation treatment (FI) corresponding to 100% of ETc and moderate deficit irrigation (DI) supplying 80% of ETc were compared. Irrigation started at berry set and lasted until three weeks before harvesting. Vine water status and leaf gas exchanges were periodically measured. Besides during ripening period berry temperatures by inserting microprobes and canopy microclimate with specific sensors were monitored. Production parameters were assessed and grapes harvested from each treatment were vinificated in small scale. Vine water status showed clear differences between treatments, net photosynthetic rate showed higher values in the FI vines from the beginning of bunch closure to veraison, while no significant differences were found one month before harvest. No significant differences were detected in production parameters (yield, cluster and berry weight) and must composition (concentration of soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH). Wines from DI vines presented the same alcohol content with respect to FI but showed higher anthocyanins and phenols concentration. These results indicate that it is possible to decrease the amount of water supply by 20% ETc in 'Nero di Troia' with no negative effect on grape and wine production at least during the first year of treatment application.