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Comparative study on secretome and transmembranome of immature and mature metacestodes of Echinococcus multilocularis

Huang, Fuqiang, Dang, Zhisheng, Zhang, Haoji, Yagi, Kinpei, Kim, Kyeongsoon, Joseph, Magona, Pu, Wenjun, Oku, Yuzaburo
Veterinary parasitology 2017 v.245 pp. 153-159
Echinococcus multilocularis, RNA, antigens, bioinformatics, chemical elements, echinococcosis, eggs, gene ontology, genes, humans, immune response, ingestion, metacestodes, parasites, proteins, vaccines, zoonoses
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a worldwide zoonosis caused by E. multilocularis. Humans become infected through oral ingestion of the eggs. Host of E. multilocularis produces immune responses that help to either reject and/or limit the growth of this parasite, and in response the parasite produces molecules against this immune attack. This study identifies candidate key molecules in the early infection phase and the chronic stage of the parasite infestation, through comparison of gene expression of 4- and 16-week metacestodes. First, RNA was isolated from 4- and 16-weeks metacestodes of E. multilocularis (Nemuro strain). Thereafter, clean reads with lengths of 50bp or longer were compared against a reference genome using TopHat. Functional annotation of transcripts of E. multilocularis were investigated using multi-step bioinformatics tools. At the gene ontology (GO) level, 356 and 1774 transmembrane (TM) predicted proteins of the E. multilocularis were mapped to an enhanced ‘hydrolase activity’ and increased ‘transmembrane transporter activity’, respectively. In addition, comparison of gene expression level between 4- and 16-week metacestode revealed 168 different expression (DE) genes. This study has demonstrated that, the expression levels of predicted ES and TM proteins in E. multilocularis change in the transformation from one stage to another. Genes that are highly expressed in immature or mature metacestode could be explored as novel candidates for diagnostic antigens and vaccine targets.