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Insights into the early stage of Pinus nigra Arn. somatic embryogenesis using discovery proteomics

Klubicová, Katarína, Uvácková, Lubica, Danchenko, Maksym, Nemecek, Peter, Skultéty, Ludovít, Salaj, Ján, Salaj, Terézia
Journal of proteomics 2017 v.169 pp. 99-111
Pinus nigra, biosynthesis, callus, cell wall components, conifers, cotyledons, early development, energy metabolism, genotype, micropropagation, models, plant development, proteins, proteomics, seedlings, somatic embryogenesis, trees, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
The somatic embryogenesis in conifers represents a suitable model of plant regeneration system facilitating studies of fundamental aspects of an early development as well as in vitro micropropagation. The aim of our study was to deeper understand the somatic embryogenesis in the conifer tree Pinus nigra Arn. Comparative proteomic analysis based on 2D-PAGE in 1) proliferating embryogenic tissues (E) initiated from immature zygotic embryos, 2) non-embryogenic calli (NEC) initiated from cotyledons of somatic seedlings of the same genotypes, 3) embryogenic tissues that lost the maturation capacity (E-L) of two cell lines (E362, E366). Investigated pine tissues showed distinct structural features. The 24 protein spots were altered in both cell lines in comparison of embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues. These proteins are involved in disease and defence mechanism, energy metabolism and biosynthesis of cell wall components. Two of three protein spots detected only in embryogenic form of both cell lines are similar to water deficit inducible protein LP3, the third remains uncharacterised. The loss of the maturation capacity was accompanied by changes in 35 and 38 protein spots in 362 and 366 cell lines, respectively. Only two of them were altered in both cell lines, suggesting non-uniform process of ageing.Somatic embryogenesis in conifers represents an experimental system for the study of early plant development as well as a biotechnological tool for large-scale micropropagation. The obtained results give a new insight into the process of somatic embryogenesis of a conifer Pinus nigra Arn. by revealing differences at proteomic levels among in vitro cultured tissues characterised by different embryogenic potential. Microscopic investigations have also shown differences in the structural organisation of studied tissues.