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Proteomic Comparison and MRM-Based Comparative Analysis of Metabolites Reveal Metabolic Shift in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

Shu, Qingbo, Cai, Tanxi, Chen, Xiulan, Zhu, Helen He, Xue, Peng, Zhu, Nali, Xie, Zhensheng, Wei, Shasha, Zhang, Qing, Niu, Lili, Gao, Wei-Qiang, Yang, Fuquan
Journal of Proteome Research 2015 v.14 no.8 pp. 3390-3402
AMP-activated protein kinase, adenylate kinase, androgen receptors, fatty acids, human cell lines, humans, isozymes, metabolites, monitoring, nucleotides, prostatic neoplasms, protein synthesis, proteome, proteomics, therapeutics, transcription (genetics)
One of the major challenges in prostate cancer therapy remains the development of effective treatments for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), as the underlying mechanisms for its progression remain elusive. Previous studies showed that androgen receptor (AR) is crucially involved in regulation of metabolism in prostate cancer (PCa) cells throughout the transition from early stage, androgen-sensitive PCa to androgen-independent CRPC. AR achieves such metabolic rewiring directively either via its transcriptional activity or via interactions with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, due to the heterogeneous expression and activity status of AR in PCa cells, it remains a challenge to investigate the links between AR status and metabolic alterations. To this end, we compared the proteomes of three pairs of androgen-sensitive (AS) and androgen-independent (AI) PCa cell lines, namely, PC3-AR⁺/PC3, 22Rv1/Du145, and LNCaP/C42B, using an iTRAQ labeling approach. Our results revealed that most of the differentially expressed proteins between each pair function in metabolism, indicating a metabolic shift between AS and AI cells, as further validated by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantification of nucleotides and relative comparison of fatty acids between these cell lines. Furthermore, increased adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1) in AS relative to AI cells may result in activation of AMPK, representing a major regulatory factor involved in the observed metabolic shift in PCa cells.