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Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis

Zhang, Yao, Li, Yanchang, Zhang, Yongguang, Wang, Zhiqiang, Zhao, Mingzhi, Su, Na, Zhang, Tao, Chen, Lingsheng, Wei, Wei, Luo, Jing, Zhou, Yanxia, Xu, Yongru, Xu, Ping, Li, Wenjun, Tao, Yong
Journal of Proteome Research 2016 v.15 no.1 pp. 68-85
ABC transporters, Nocardiopsis, amino acids, bioinformatics, cell differentiation, cell movement, ions, molecular motor proteins, phenotype, phosphotransferases (kinases), proteome, proteomics, salinity, salt concentration, salt stress, signal transduction, sodium, solutes
The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na⁺-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress.