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Comparison of single extraction procedures and the application of an index for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in river sediments

Sakan, Sanja, Popović, Aleksandar, Škrivanj, Sandra, Sakan, Nenad, Đorđević, Dragana
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.21 pp. 21485-21500
EDTA (chelating agent), acetic acid, barium, bioavailability, cadmium, calcium chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, heavy metals, iron, leaching, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, potassium, risk, risk assessment, rivers, sediments, vanadium, zinc
Metals in sediments are present in different chemical forms which affect their ability to transfer. The objective of this body of work was to compare different extraction methods for the bioavailability evaluation of some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn from Serbian river sediments. A bioavailability risk assessment index (BRAI) was used for the quantification of heavy metal bioavailability in the sediments. Actual and potential element availability was assessed by single extractions with mild (CaCl₂ and CH₃COONH₄) and acidic (CH₃COOH) extractants and complexing agents (EDTA). Aqua regia extraction was used for the determination of the pseudo-total element content in river sediments. In different single extraction tests, higher extraction of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb was observed than for the other elements. The results of the single extraction tests revealed that there is a considerable chance of metal leaching from the sediments assessed in this study. When the BRAI was applied, the results showed a high risk of heavy metal bioavailability in Serbian river sediments.