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Bioavailability evaluation, uptake of heavy metals and potential health risks via dietary exposure in urban-industrial areas
- Yousaf, Balal, Liu, Guijian, Wang, Ruwei, Imtiaz, Muhammad, Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad, Munir, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba, Niu, Zhiyuan
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.22 pp. 22443-22453
- heavy metals, lead, urban areas, dietary exposure, urbanization, risk, bioavailability, cadmium, human health, risk assessment, industrialization, cities, point source pollution, health effects assessments, United States Environmental Protection Agency, humans, models, developing countries, soil, chromium, traffic, food intake, therapeutics, industrial effluents, nickel, vegetables, environmental monitoring
- A verity of human activities i.e. urbanization and industrialization have been resulted serious environmental contaminations by heavy metals in all over the world. The settlement of populations in urban and nearby industrial areas for economic development has significant share in their exposure to these metallic contaminants. Depending on the nature and type of the pollutants, targeted urban-industrial environments can have harmful and chronic health risk impacts on exposed local inhabitants and may require detoxification, healing and remedial therapy. Consequently, environmental monitoring as well as human health risk assessments of urban environments under industrial influence are key dominant features. We believe this work will provide new insights into the studies of metals exposure and associated health risks in emerging industrials cities of developing countries. Present study aimed to study the bioavailability of metals, quantify the changeability in soil and vegetable metal concentrations and estimation of human health risks via dietary exposure, focusing on urban-industrial environment. Soil and vegetable samples were collected in six random sites within the urban, periurban and industrial areas and analyzed for metal concentrations. In addition, risk assessment model proposed by US-EPA was employed to estimate the potential health risk of heavy metals via dietary intake. Results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations were noteworthy in periurban and urban-industrial areas. However, contamination levels varied with the type of vegetable, and the point source pollution such as traffic, urban wastes and industrial effluent. According to the estimated THQ and HI values for non-carcinogenic risk, little or no negative impact of heavy metals was observed on local inhabitants. However, the concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni were nearly closed to the permissible limits described by US-EPA in urban-industrial areas. Conclusively, some efficient remedial strategies should be focus to overcome the increasing levels of Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni in this study area to protect the health of local inhabitants.