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Aging of solidified/stabilized electrolytic manganese solid waste with accelerated carbonation and aging inhibition
- Du, Bing, Zhou, Changbo, Dan, Zhigang, Zhao, Zhiyuan, Peng, Xianjia, Liu, Jianguo, Duan, Ning
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.23 pp. 24195-24204
- absorption, accelerated aging, binding capacity, calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, carbonation, leaching, magnesium, manganese, manganese carbonate, microstructure, oxidation, pH, phosphates, rhodochrosite, soil, solid wastes, solidification, stabilizers, China
- High concentrations of soluble Mn in electrolytic manganese solid waste (EMSW) in soil cause the severe contamination in China. Calcium oxide and magnesium oxide-dominated stabilizers are suitable for the solidification/stabilization (s/s) of EMSW. However, the long-term performance of s/s using those two types of stabilizer is problematic. The aim of this study was to develop an accelerated aging method to simulate the long-term natural carbonation of solidified/stabilized EMSW. The joint use of accelerated carbonation, leaching test, mineralogical analysis, and microstructural observation was applied to assess the long-term performance of the s/s EMSW system. On an accelerated carbonation test for solidified/stabilized EMSW, an increase in Mn leaching from 13.6 to 408 mg/kg and a 1.5–2.3 decrease in pH was achieved by using CaO-dominated stabilizers, while an increase in manganese (Mn) from 30 to 266 mg/kg and a decrease in pH of 0.17–0.68 was seen using MgO-dominated stabilizers. CaO+Na₃PO₄ and CaO+CaCO₃ were exceptions in that the leaching value of soluble Mn was lower after carbonation. Mineralogical analysis showed that rhodochrosite in the carbonated s/s system was generated not only from the reduction of hausmannite but also from the reversible reaction between Mn(OH)₂ and MnCO₃. Carbonation destroyed the tight particle structure resulting in a porous and loose structure. As for s/s EMSW treated by MgO-dominated stabilizers, carbonation affected the agglomerating structure and mineralogical composition by increasing magnesium (Mg) migration, thereby forming hydromagnesite that had weak binding ability and a nested porous shape. Therefore, carbonation by itself does not cause deterioration to s/s products of the soluble Mn but does have significant effects on the microstructure and mineralogical composition. It is recommended to add Na₃PO₄ or CaCO₃ into a single CaO stabilized EMSW system to prevent aging of the system, allow formation of Mn phosphate precipitates, and improve the absorption and oxidation of soluble Mn(II).