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Genomic Tools and Prospects for New Breeding Techniques in Flower Bulb Crops

Krens, F. A., Kamo, K.
Acta horticulturae 2013 no.974 pp. 139
Liliales, RNA interference, consumer acceptance, crops, disease resistance, expressed sequence tags, flowers, genes, genetic markers, genetic transformation, marker-assisted selection, mutagenesis, new methods, nucleases, ornamental bulbs, corms and tubers, plant breeding, promoter regions, transgenic plants, zinc finger motif
For many of the new breeding techniques sequence information is of the utmost importance. In addition to current breeding techniques, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genetic modification (GM), new breeding techniques such as zinc finger nucleases, oligonucleotide-mediated mutagenesis, RNAi and cisgenesis are totally dependent on knowing gene or allele sequences. Many plant species have been fully sequenced, but none of them represents an ornamental crop, let alone a member of the monocotyledonous, bulbiferous geophyte order, such as the Liliales. For a limited number of these flower bulb species, some EST-libraries have been generated and a similarly low number of promoters and genes have been isolated, characterized, or used for transformation. Most of the functional analyses and applications in genetically modified crops were ectopic, i.e., not in flower bulb crops themselves. Genes and promoters originating from other organisms have been used in GM of flower bulbs aiming for the introduction of disease resistance or the modification of flower traits. In order to enhance consumer acceptance of transgenic GM flower bulbs and to facilitate obtaining EU approval for cultivation and market introduction, the marker-free technology is being tested.