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In vitro assessment of hepatoprotective agents against damage induced by acetaminophen and CCl4

González, LilianaTorres, Minsky, NoemíWaksman, Espinosa, LindaElsa Muñoz, Aranda, RicardoSalazar, Meseguer, JonathanPérez, Pérez, PaulaCordero
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2017 v.17 no.1 pp. 39
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, acetaminophen, alanine transaminase, alternative medicine, antioxidant activity, aspartate transaminase, bioassays, carbon tetrachloride, cell viability, cytotoxicity, enzyme activity, exposure duration, free radical scavengers, glutathione, hepatoprotective effect, hepatotoxicity, human cell lines, in vitro studies, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation, liver, malondialdehyde, silymarin, superoxide dismutase
BACKGROUND: In vitro bioassays are important in the evaluation of plants with possible hepatoprotective effects. The aims of this study were to evaluate the pretreatment of HepG2 cells with hepatoprotective agents against the damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) and paracetamol (APAP). METHODS: Antioxidative activity was measured using an assay to measure 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. The in vitro hepatotoxicity of CCl₄ and APAP, and the cytotoxic and hepatoprotective properties of silymarin (SLM), silybinin (SLB), and silyphos (SLP) were evaluated by measuring cell viability; activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); total antioxidant capacity (TAOxC); and reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) levels). RESULTS: Only SLB and SLM showed strong antioxidative activity in the DPPH assay (39.71 ± 0.85 μg/mL and 14.14 ± 0.65 μg/mL, respectively). CCl₄ induced time- and concentration-dependent changes. CCl₄ had significant effects on cell viability, enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, TAOxC, and SOD and GSH levels. These differences remained significant up to an exposure time of 3 h. APAP induced a variety of dose- and time-dependent responses up to 72 h of exposure. SLM, SLB, and SLP were not cytotoxic. Only SLB at a concentration of 100 μg/mL or 150 μg/mL significantly decreased the enzyme activities and MDA level, and prevented depletion of total antioxidants compared with CCl₄. CONCLUSIONS: CCl₄ was more consistent than APAP in inducing cell injury. Only SLB provided hepatoprotection. AST, LDH, and MDA levels were good markers of liver damage.