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Black Phosphorus Quantum Dot Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity in Living Cells and Mice
- Mu, Xiaoyu, Wang, Jun-Ying, Bai, Xueting, Xu, Fujuan, Liu, Haixia, Yang, Jiang, Jing, Yaqi, Liu, Lingfang, Xue, Xuhui, Dai, Haitao, Liu, Qiang, Sun, Yuan-Ming, Liu, Changlong, Zhang, Xiao-Dong
- ACS applied materials 2017 v.9 no.24 pp. 20399-20409
- DNA damage, apoptosis, bone marrow, catalase, in vitro studies, kidneys, lipid peroxidation, mice, neoplasms, oxidative stress, phosphorus, quantum dots, spleen, stress response, therapeutics, toxicity
- Black phosphorus (BP), as an emerging successor to layered two-dimensional materials, has attracted extensive interest in cancer therapy. Toxicological studies on BP are of great importance for potential biomedical applications, yet not systemically explored. Herein, toxicity and oxidative stress of BP quantum dots (BPQDs) at cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels are evaluated by performing the systemic in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vitro investigations show that BPQDs at high concentration (200 μg/mL) exhibit significant apoptotic effects on HeLa cells. In vivo investigations indicate that oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation, reduction of catalase activity, DNA breaks, and bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC) damage, can be induced by BPQDs transiently but recovered gradually to healthy levels. No apparent pathological damages are observed in all organs, especially in the spleen and kidneys, during the 30-day period. This work clearly shows that BPQDs can cause acute toxicities by oxidative stress responses, but the inflammatory reactions can be recovered gradually with time for up to 30 days. Thus, BPQDs do not give rise to long-term appreciable toxicological responses.