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Non-targeted Plasma Metabolome of Early and Late Lactation Gilts

Rempel, Lea A., Miles, Jeremy R., Oliver, William T., Broeckling, Corey D.
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences 2016 v.3 no.77
analysis of variance, backfat, biochemical pathways, blood serum, body condition, body weight changes, creatinine, early lactation, energy requirements, farrowing, fat thickness, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gilts, inositols, late lactation, metabolome, metabolomics, parity (reproduction), phospholipids, piglets, protein metabolism, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, weaning
Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or latelactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and(3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts. Twenty first-parity gilts were selected with similar (P≥0.4475) number of piglets born and nursed, and similar (P≥0.3141) body condition traits (e.g., body weight and backfat thickness) post-farrowing, yet exhibited minimal or extreme loss (P≤0.0094) in body weight (8.6±1.48 kg and 26.1±1.90 kg, respectively) and backfat thickness (1.3±0.67 mm and 4.7±0.86 mm, respectively) following lactation (weaning). Plasma samples from first-parity gilts at post-farrowing and weaning were investigated using UPLC-MS and GC-MS to generate a comprehensive metabolic profile. Each approach yielded approximately 700 detected features. An ANOVA was performed on each detected compound in R for time of collection, body condition change, and the interaction, followed by a false discovery correction. Two unknown features were different (P≤0.05) for extreme vs. minimal body condition change. Several compound differences (P≤0.05) we reidentified between post-farrowing and weaning. Thirty-two features detected by UPLC-MS had at least a log2 fold-change of ±1.0 while only 18 features had a log2 fold-change of ±0.6 or more for the significant GC-MS features. Annotation implicated various metabolic pathways. Creatinine was greater at weaning (P=0.0224) and others have reported increased serum concentrations of creatinine in response to body weight loss. Hippurate and caprolactam, associated with protein catabolism, were also greater(P≤0.0166) at weaning. Phospholipid features (P≤0.0347) and inositol-related features (P≤0.0236) were also greater at weaning. Inositol features may exertinsulin-like effects. The energetic demands of lactation in gilts nursing their first litter indicated a greater difference exists between early and late lactation regardless of body condition loss.