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Non-targeted Plasma Metabolome of Early and Late Lactation Gilts

Lea A. Rempel, Jeremy R. Miles, William T. Oliver, Corey D. Broeckling
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences 2016 v.3 no.77 pp. -
analysis of variance, backfat, biochemical pathways, blood serum, body condition, body weight changes, creatinine, early lactation, energy requirements, farrowing, fat thickness, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gilts, inositols, late lactation, metabolome, metabolomics, parity (reproduction), phospholipids, piglets, protein metabolism, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, weaning
Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or latelactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and(3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts. Twenty first-parity gilts were selected with similar (P≥0.4475) number of piglets born and nursed, and similar (P≥0.3141) body condition traits (e.g., body weight and backfat thickness) post-farrowing, yet exhibited minimal or extreme loss (P≤0.0094) in body weight (8.6±1.48 kg and 26.1±1.90 kg, respectively) and backfat thickness (1.3±0.67 mm and 4.7±0.86 mm, respectively) following lactation (weaning). Plasma samples from first-parity gilts at post-farrowing and weaning were investigated using UPLC-MS and GC-MS to generate a comprehensive metabolic profile. Each approach yielded approximately 700 detected features. An ANOVA was performed on each detected compound in R for time of collection, body condition change, and the interaction, followed by a false discovery correction. Two unknown features were different (P≤0.05) for extreme vs. minimal body condition change. Several compound differences (P≤0.05) we reidentified between post-farrowing and weaning. Thirty-two features detected by UPLC-MS had at least a log2 fold-change of ±1.0 while only 18 features had a log2 fold-change of ±0.6 or more for the significant GC-MS features. Annotation implicated various metabolic pathways. Creatinine was greater at weaning (P=0.0224) and others have reported increased serum concentrations of creatinine in response to body weight loss. Hippurate and caprolactam, associated with protein catabolism, were also greater(P≤0.0166) at weaning. Phospholipid features (P≤0.0347) and inositol-related features (P≤0.0236) were also greater at weaning. Inositol features may exertinsulin-like effects. The energetic demands of lactation in gilts nursing their first litter indicated a greater difference exists between early and late lactation regardless of body condition loss.