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Pyrethroids in chicken eggs from commercial farms and home production in Rio de Janeiro: Estimated daily intake and diastereomeric selectivity

Parente, Cláudio E.T., Lestayo, Julliana, Guida, Yago S., Azevedo-Silva, Claudio E., Torres, João Paulo M., Meire, Rodrigo O., Malm, Olaf
Chemosphere 2017
Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, average daily intake, bifenthrin, bioaccumulation, chicken eggs, commercial farms, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, diastereomers, egg production, eggs, fenvalerate, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, home-based businesses, humans, ionization, lipids, maximum residue limits, permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrins, risk, Brazil
In this study, pyrethroids were determined in chicken eggs from commercial farm (n = 60) and home egg production (n = 30). These pyrethroids were investigated: bifenthrin, phenothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, including most diastereomers. Quantification was done using GC-MS in a negative chemical ionization mode. Pyrethroids residues were found in 79% of the analyzed samples. Cypermethrin presented the highest occurrence, being quantified in 62 samples (69%) in concentrations (lipid weight – l w.) varying between 0.29 and 6408 ng g−1, followed by phenothrin (24%), 21–3910 ng g−1, permethrin (14%), 2.96–328 ng g−1, and bifenthrin (11%), 3.77–16.7 ng g−1. Cyfluthrin and fenvalerate were not detected. Home-produced eggs had a higher occurrence of pyrethroids (97%), with a greater predominance of phenothrin. In commercial production, 70% of the samples presented pyrethroid residues (predominantly cypermethrin). This is the first report about the presence of pyrethroids in home-produced eggs and the first description of a selectivity pattern with the predominance of cis diastereomers in chicken eggs. In general, estimated daily intake does not present a risk to human consumption, according to Brazilian and international standards (FAO/WHO). However, one third of the samples (30 eggs) had concentrations above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The maximum cypermethrin concentration was 66 times the MRL, while the maximum phenothrin concentration was 11 times the limit. Further studies about transfer dynamics, bioaccumulation and metabolic degradation of stereoisomers are required, as well as determining if this selectivity pattern in food can increase consumer's health risk.