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Impact of sodium chloride on wheat flour dough for yeast‐leavened products. II. Baking quality parameters and their relationship

Beck, Margit, Jekle, Mario, Becker, Thomas
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2012 v.92 no.2 pp. 299-306
baking quality, breads, differential scanning calorimetry, dough, firmness, food production, gases, hypertension, loaves, retrogradation, sensory properties, sodium, sodium chloride, starch, wheat, wheat flour, yeasts
BACKGROUND: The traditional use of sodium chloride (NaCl) fulfills various important rheological, technological and sensory properties in the manufacturing of yeast‐leavened products. However, the use of NaCl in food production has been discussed controversially since a high intake of sodium seems to be associated with hypertension. This study investigates the baking quality parameters of wheat breads containing various levels of NaCl (0–40 g NaCl kg−1flour). RESULTS: Crumb firmness and rate of bread staling decreased with decreasing NaCl levels. A slight increase in loaf volume was observed based on the increased yeast leavening ability resulting from additional NaCl. Higher crumb retrogradation (measured by differential scanning calorimetry) was observed with low NaCl levels. CONCLUSION: The retrogradation effect is based on the theory that NaCl probably leads to Na+ inclusion in starch molecules during storage and thus reduces retrogradation. Further, significant (P⩽0.05) linear relationships (r ≥ 0.829) between Rheofermentometer results, bread volume and crumb firmness were found, suggesting a predictability of bread quality by measurement of gas release.