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A review of methods used for studying the molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

Zeeh, Friederike, Nathues, Heiko, Frey, Joachim, Muellner, Petra, Fellström, Claes
Veterinary microbiology 2017 v.207 pp. 181-194
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, anti-infective agents, birds, databases, financial economics, humans, molecular biology, molecular epidemiology, pork industry, swine, swine dysentery
Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last years, molecular methods have been increasingly used. Molecular epidemiology links molecular biology with epidemiology, offering unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases. This review is based on papers published in the field of epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae in pigs. Electronic databases were screened for potentially relevant papers using title and abstract and finally, Barcellos et al. papers were systemically selected and assessed. The review summarises briefly the current knowledge on B. hyodysenteriae epidemiology and elaborates on molecular typing techniques available.Results of the studies are compared and gaps in the knowledge are addressed. Finally, potential areas for future research are proposed.