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Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. leaves extract in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats

Nain, Parminder, Saini, Vipin, Sharma, Sunil, Nain, Jaspreet
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2012 v.142 no.1 pp. 65-71
Phyllanthus emblica, alkaline phosphatase, antioxidant activity, bark, blood glucose, blood serum, catalase, cholesterol, creatinine, diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, flowers, free radical scavengers, fruits, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glycemic effect, insulin, kidneys, leaf extracts, leaves, lipid peroxidation, liver, oral administration, oxidative stress, protective effect, rats, risk, roots, seeds, streptozotocin, superoxide dismutase, traditional medicine, transaminases, triacylglycerols, urea
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Indian medicine, all parts of Emblica officinalis Gaertn plant including the fruit, seed, leaves, root, bark and flowers are used in various herbal preparations for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, chronic diarrhea, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and antioxidants effects of the hydro-methanolic (20:80) extract of leaves of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (HMELEO) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hypoglycemic effect was measured by blood glucose and plasma insulin level. The oxidative stress was measured in liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and the biochemical parameters, i.e. blood serum levels of creatinine, urea, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were the salient features observed in diabetic control and treated rats. RESULTS: Oral administration of the HMELEO at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400mg/kgb.w. daily for 45 days showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in fasting blood glucose and increase insulin level as compared with the diabetic rats. Also it significantly (P<0.05) reduced all biochemical parameters (serum creatinine, serum urea, SGOT, SGPT and lipid profile). The treatment also resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and decrease LPO level in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: The results clearly suggest that the hydro methanolic extract of leaves of Emblica officials Gaertn. treated group may effectively normalize the impaired antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetes at dose dependent manner than the glibenclamide-treated groups. The extract exerted rapid protective effects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging of free radicals and reducing the risk of diabetic complications.