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New multilocus genotypes of Giardia lamblia human isolates

Faria, Clarissa Perez, Zanini, Graziela Maria, Dias, Gisele Silva, da Silva, Sidnei, Sousa, Maria do Céu
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2017 v.54 pp. 128-137
DNA, Giardia lamblia, feces, genes, genetic variation, genotype, giardin protein, glutamate dehydrogenase, humans, loci, multilocus sequence typing, nucleotides, patients, triose-phosphate isomerase, Brazil
Giardia lamblia is considered a species complex, whose members show little differences in their morphology, but have remarkable genetic variability. The aim of this study was to identify inter- and intra-assemblage genetic variation in G. lamblia among patients in Rio de Janeiro. The parasitological study was performed on faeces, and DNA was extracted from the samples which tested positive for G. lamblia. The genetic assemblages and subtypes were determined via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase gene loci. Fourteen assemblage A samples were successfully genotyped at the three MLST loci (bg/tpi/gdh). Two previously identified multilocus genotypes were found (AII-1 and AII-4), and two novel multilocus genotypes are proposed (AII-8, profile A2/A2/A4; AII-9, profile A3/A2/A2). Sequence analysis showed that assemblage B isolates have a higher nucleotide variation than those from assemblage A. Novel assemblage B sequences are described and most (66.7%) have heterogeneous nucleotides, which prevent the definition of multilocus genotypes. This is the first time that MLST has been used to characterise G. lamblia isolates in human clinical samples from Rio de Janeiro. In addition, MLST has enabled the detection of novel subtypes in both assemblages and the description of two novel multilocus genotypes in assemblage A. This study provides new insights into the genetic diversity of assemblage A and shows that MLST should be used to characterise G. lamblia both in Brazil and globally.