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Transformation and bioavailability of metal oxide nanoparticles in aquatic and terrestrial environments. A review

Amde, Meseret, Liu, Jing-fu, Tan, Zhi-Qiang, Bekana, Deribachew
Environmental pollution 2017 v.230 pp. 250-267
bioavailability, nanoparticles, researchers, risk assessment, sediments
Metal oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) are among the most consumed NPs and also have wide applications in various areas which increased their release into the environmental system. Aquatic (water and sediments) and terrestrial compartments are predicted to be the destination of the released MeO-NPs. In these compartments, the particles are subjected to various dynamic processes such as physical, chemical and biological processes, and undergo transformations which drive them away from their pristine state. These transformation pathways can have strong implications for the fate, transport, persistence, bioavailability and toxic-effects of the NPs. In this critical review, we provide the state-of-the-knowledge on the transformation processes and bioavailability of MeO-NPs in the environment, which is the topic of interest to researchers. We also recommend future research directions in the area which will support future risk assessments by enhancing our knowledge of the transformation and bioavailability of MeO-NPs.