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Gluten-free baking: Combating the challenges - A review

Naqash, Farah, Gani, Asir, Gani, Adil, Masoodi, F.A.
Trends in food science & technology 2017 v.66 pp. 98-107
aeration, baking, celiac disease, extrusion, fermentation, functional foods, gluten, gluten-free bread, hot water treatment, hypersensitivity, mixing, sourdough
Gluten-free products are finding an increased demand since the incidence of celiac disease or other gluten-associated allergies. The replacement of gluten becomes a necessity to avoid the occurrence of any such disorder. Eliminating gluten however appears in the face of a technological challenge as it aims to minimize the prevalence of any disease causing condition on the one hand, and gives rise to products with compromised quality on the other hand. Attempts are thus made to adopt methods that could produce cereal based gluten-free products with technological properties comparable to their gluten containing counterparts and minimum compromises with quality.This paper reviews the approaches adopted to combat the commonly encountered problems associated with the elimination of gluten. Composition directed approaches and technologies involved are discussed, and a brief mention of the defects with gluten-free products is also included.It is possible to reduce technological inadequacies in gluten-free bread and related products by the incorporation of functional ingredients in the formulations and adopting technologies like high pressure, improving aeration, sourdough fermentation, and extrusion. Defects commonly encountered are considerably reduced furnishing an improved product for gluten-free consumers. More research is however required in extending the use of high pressure, ultrasound aeration, hydrothermal treatments and the applicability of different mixing systems in the production of gluten-free products.