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Functional properties, structural studies and chemo-enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides

Zhao, Chao, Wu, Yijing, Liu, Xiaoyan, Liu, Bin, Cao, Hui, Yu, Hua, Sarker, Satyajit D., Nahar, Lutfun, Xiao, Jianbo
Trends in food science & technology 2017 v.66 pp. 135-145
algae, antineoplastic activity, bacteria, breast milk, capillary electrophoresis, complement, functional properties, fungi, growth promotion, high performance liquid chromatography, immune system, immunomodulators, intestines, mass spectrometry, milk, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oligosaccharides, pharmaceutical industry, physicochemical properties
Oligosaccharides offer beneficial effects on immune system and gut health, such as anticancer activity, immunomodulatory activity, and complement activation. Functional oligosaccharides are widely found in plants, algae, bacteria and higher fungi. Milk oligosaccharides, especially human milk oligosaccharides, have considerable health benefits, such as the growth-promotion of the beneficial bacterial flora in the intestines, and developing resistance to bactertial and viral infections. Recent developments in high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and capillary electrophoresis techniques contribute to the analysis of the oligosaccharide identification and mixture quantification. Synthesis of oligosaccharides is becoming increasingly important to pharmaceutical industries, in which chemo-enzymatic synthesis is considered as an effective method. This article gives a brief summary of structures, accessible sources, physiological and chemical characteristics, and potential health benefits of functional oligosaccharides.