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Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Chinese men and women

Villegas, Raquel, Xiang, Yong-Bing, Elasy, Tom, Li, Hong-Lan, Yang, Gong, Cai, Hui, Ye, Fei, Gao, Yu-Tang, Shyr, Yu, Zheng, Wei, Shu, Xiao-Ou
The American journal of clinical nutrition 2011 v.94 no.2 pp. 543-551
anthropometric measurements, cardiovascular diseases, cohort studies, men, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, omega-3 fatty acids, physical activity, regression analysis, relative risk, shellfish, women
BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, found mainly in fish, have been postulated to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, the role of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and fish intake in the development of T2D remains unresolved. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of T2D in a middle-aged Chinese population. DESIGN: This was a prospective population-based cohort study in 51,963 men and 64,193 women free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline with valid dietary information. Dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were collected. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association of fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid (in g/d) with risk of T2D. RESULTS: Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid intakes were inversely associated with T2D in women. The relative risks [RRs (95% CI)] for quintiles of fish intake were 1.00, 0.96 (0.86, 1.06), 0.84 (0.75, 0.94), 0.80 (0.71, 0.90), and 0.89 (0.78, 1.01) (P for trend = 0.003) and for shellfish were 1.00, 0.91 (0.82, 1.01), 0.79 (0.71, 0.89), 0.80 (0.71, 0.91), and 0.86 (0.76, 0.99) (P for trend = 0.006). In men, only the association between shellfish intake and T2D was significant. The RRs (95% CI) for quintiles of fish intake were 1.00, 0.92 (0.75, 1.13), 0.80 (0.65, 1.00), 0.89 (0.72, 1.11), and 0.94 (0.74, 1.17) (P for trend = 0.50) and for shellfish intake were 1.00, 0.93 (0.76, 1.12), 0.70 (0.56, 086), 0.66 (0.53, 0.82), and 0.82 (0.65, 1.02) (P for trend = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: An inverse association between fish and shellfish intake and T2D in women was found. No evidence of a detrimental effect of fish intake in this population was observed.