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Survey of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in retail market chilies and chili sauce samples

Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar, Asi, Muhammad Rafique, Mehmood, Zahid, Mumtaz, Amna, Malik, Noeen
Food control 2017 v.81 pp. 218-223
European Union, aflatoxin B1, fluorescence, health hazards, high performance liquid chromatography, markets, ochratoxin A, retail marketing, surveys, Pakistan
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of the aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 312 samples of whole chili, chili powder, crushed chili and chili sauce samples from suburbs, open market and food restaurants of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC with fluorescence detector, after immunoaffinity column clean-up. The results have shown that 176 out of 312 (56.4%) samples were to be positive with AFs and 126 out of 312 (40.4%) sample of chilies were found to be contaminated with OTA. Total mean level of AFB1 and total AFs in chilies were 12.50 ± 1.91, 15.16 ± 2.22 μg/kg, respectively. The total mean level of OTA in chilies was found 16.68 ± 2.58 μg/kg, ranged from LOD to 120.9 μg/kg. Sample 39.5, 26.3 and 32.7% of chilies were found containing level of AFB1, total AFs and OTA, higher than the recommended limits for EU, respectively. The dietary levels of 3.26, 3.52, and 3.84 μg/kg were determined for AFB1, total AFs and OTA in chilies. The incidence and levels of AFs and OTA in chilies are higher and could pose serious health hazards for consumers.