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Temporal microbiota changes of high-protein diet intake in a rat model

Mu, Chunlong, Yang, Yuxiang, Luo, Zhen, Zhu, Weiyun
Anaerobe 2017 v.47 pp. 218-225
Bifidobacterium, Escherichia coli, Eubacterium rectale, Prevotella, Roseburia, Ruminococcus bromii, acetates, adults, animal models, bacteria, butyrates, colon, correlation, feces, genes, high protein diet, immunoglobulin G, inflammation, intestinal microorganisms, metabolites, methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase, oxidative stress, propionic acid, rats, temporal variation
Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis. The structural alteration of fecal microbiota was observed after 4 weeks, especially for the decreased appearance of bands related to Akkermansia species. HPD increased numbers of Escherichia coli while decreased Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus bromii, and Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale (P < 0.05), compared to the normal-protein diet. HPD also decreased the copies of genes encoding butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and Prevotella-associated methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase α-subunit (P < 0.05). The concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were decreased by HPD (P < 0.05). Additionally, HPD tended to decrease (P = 0.057) the concentration of IgG in the colonic lumen, which was positively correlated with fecal butyrate at week 6 (P < 0.05). Collectively, this study found the temporal alteration of fecal microbiota related to the decreased numbers and activity of propionate- and butyrate-producing bacteria in feces after the HPD. These findings may provide important reference for linking changes of specific fecal microbes with gut health under high-protein diet.