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Isolation and molecular characterization of Thraustochytrium strain isolated from Antarctic Peninsula and its biotechnological potential in the production of fatty acids

Caamaño, Esteban, Loperena, Lyliam, Hinzpeter, Ivonne, Pradel, Paulina, Gordillo, Felipe, Corsini, Gino, Tello, Mario, Lavín, Paris, González, Alex R.
Brazilian journal of microbiology 2017 v.48 no.4 pp. 671-679
Thraustochytrium, biofuels, biomass, carbon, dietary supplements, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, genes, geographical distribution, glucose, lipid content, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, microbiology, palmitic acid, protists, ribosomal RNA, temperature, Antarctic region
Thraustochytrids are unicellular protists belonging to the Labyrinthulomycetes class, which are characterized by the presence of a high lipid content that could replace conventional fatty acids. They show a wide geographic distribution, however their diversity in the Antarctic Region is rather scarce. The analysis based on the complete sequence of 18S rRNA gene showed that strain 34-2 belongs to the species Thraustochytrium kinnei, with 99% identity. The total lipid profile shows a wide range of saturated fatty acids with abundance of palmitic acid (16:0), showing a range of 16.1–19.7%. On the other hand, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are present in a range of 24–48% and 6.1–9.3%, respectively. All factors analyzed in cells (biomass, carbon consumption and lipid content) changed with variations of culture temperature (10°C and 25°C). The growth in glucose at a temperature of 10°C presented the most favorable conditions to produce omega-3fatty acid. This research provides the identification and characterization of a Thraustochytrids strain, with a total lipid content that presents potential applications in the production of nutritional supplements and as well biofuels.