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Identification of IBV QX vaccine markers : Should vaccine acceptance by authorities require similar identifications for all live IBV vaccines?

Listorti, Valeria, Laconi, Andrea, Catelli, Elena, Cecchinato, Mattia, Lupini, Caterina, Naylor, Clive J.
Vaccine 2017 v.35 no.42 pp. 5531-5534
amino acids, farms, genes, genotype, live vaccines, mutation, nucleotides, transcription (genetics), vaccination, Europe
IBV genotype QX causes sufficient disease in Europe for several commercial companies to have started developing live attenuated vaccines. Here, one of those vaccines (L1148) was fully consensus sequenced alongside its progenitor field strain (1148-A) to determine vaccine markers, thereby enabling detection on farms. Twenty-eight single nucleotide substitutions were associated with the 1148-A attenuation, of which any combination can identify vaccine L1148 in the field. Sixteen substitutions resulted in amino acid coding changes of which half were in spike. One change in the 1b gene altered the normally highly conserved final 5 nucleotides of the transcription regulatory sequence of the S gene, common to all IBV QX genes. No mutations can currently be associated with the attenuation process. Field vaccination strategies would greatly benefit by such comparative sequence data being mandatorily submitted to regulators prior to vaccine release following a successful registration process.